Original article / research
Image Guided Transthoracic Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Mediastinal Masses- An Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital of Eastern India
Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, PRM Medical College, Rangamatia,
Baripada, Odisha, India.
Introduction: Image-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy of mediastinal masses is usually safe and effective technique for obtaining tissue for diagnosis and early decision can be taken for effective management.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to know the efficacy of different investigative methods for diagnosis of mediastinal masses and to analyse various cytomorphological forms.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective observational study conducted at Pandit Raghunath Murmu Medical College, Baripada from January 2019 to June 2020. Retrospective review of all Ultrasonography (USG) and Computed Tomography (CT)- guided percutaneous aspirations of the anterior mediastinum mass. Relevant data regarding patient demographics, imaging characteristics of aspirated masses, presence of complications, and subsequent surgical intervention were collected. Cytology and core biopsy pathology results were recorded. The qualitative data were compared using Chi-square test with Yate’s correction.
Results: This study included 35 patients (25 male, 10 female). Highest incidence was noticed in anterior mediastinum (n=26, 74.3%) followed by superior (n=4, 11.4%) and posterior mediastinum (n=3, 8.6%). Most of the cases were malignant (n=28; 80%) and Non Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) was most common diagnosis (n=10; 28.6%). Radiology yielded the correct diagnosis in 25 out of 35 patients (71.4%). Core biopsy was obtained in six cases and all the cases were diagnosed cytologically with 100% accuracy. There was statistically significant difference between the radiological and cytological diagnosis. The complication rate was minimal (2/35), both were the case of pneumothorax.
Conclusion: Image-guided percutaneous aspiration is a safe diagnostic procedure with high diagnostic accuracy in aspiration cytology than radiology. Highest diagnostic accuracy was seen in non hodgkins lymphoma and it can potentially obviate more invasive procedures.
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